К теме ПКР - загоризонтное наведение ПКР в ВМФ России



Уважаемые участники форума,
ниже я хочу привести статью из JANE'S INTELLIGENCE REVIEW 1989 001/007, многими критикуемого, но тем не менее статья информативна.

Over-the-horizon detection and targeting (OTHDT).
For the Soviets, one of the most critical and at the same time most difficult pr lems to be resolved is over-the-horizon detection and targeting (OTHDT) for firing anti-ship missiles. The Soviet Navy was in fact the first modern navy faced with the full complexity of this task. The Soviets were the first to introduce long-range anti-ship missiles into operational service. They regard OTHDT of missiles with a range longer than 100 kms as a complicated scientific-technical and organisational-tactical problem.
In general, OTHDT must provide identification, general location, and movement of the primary target or targets. The target must be localised with accuracy enough to provide data to weapon fire control. The OTHDT system also must be le to communicate targeting data to weapon control systems in time to allow a valid fire control solutio efore the target's dynamics invalidate the targeting data.
Obviously, one needs a continuous visual and sensor surveillance when targeting enemy surface ships. A platform in line of sight of the target represents the key element in the Soviet OTHDT system. Ocean surveillance satellites, fixed-wing aircraft, shipboard helicopters, surface combatants, intelligence collector ships (AGIs), land-based radio direction finders (RDFs), and poss ly submarines in visual or sensor contact with the target can provide target location data.
These platforms, however, must be le to communicate directly or relay the data with little delay to the strike platform. The Soviets prefer long-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft for reconnaissance and targeting. Shipboard helicopters are used extensively for over-the-horizon targeting. Submarines, land-based fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters, surface ships or combat craft, RDFs, and coastal radar posts can carry out the same tasks in enclosed seas and offshore waters. As of yet, the Soviets do not use remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs) in any large numbers in OTHDT.
Ocean Surveillance Satellites
The Soviets operate a worldwide intelligence gathering system on the movements of Western naval ships and merchant vessels. One of the most important components of this system is ocean surveillance satelites. These satellites are used to transmit tactical targeting data to Soviet submarines, aircraft, and surface ships in various parts of the world's oceans. The Soviets currently use at least two satellite systems: electronic intelligence satellites (EORSATs), and radar ocean surveillance satellites (RORSATs) to provide their ships and submarines with an OTH location and targeting capability Reportedly, the RORSAT's radar can identify ships the size of destroyers 50 per cent of the time, cruiser-sized ships 75 per cent of the time, and aircraft carriers 90 per cent of the time. If a wide area search radar is used the satellite serves as a bl detector: that is, a sensor that can detect the presence of an object but not classify it beyond small, medium or large. The Soviet RORSATs reportedly can fix the coordinates of individual ships they detect and provide accurate targeting data a few moments after they overfly the target. Their imagery, however, is inadequate to provide the high resolution required to determine the ship's type. The use of RORSATs for detecting Western ships on a continuous basis is limited because bad weather over the target area greatly restricts or precludes radar servation.
A relatively small number of the RORSATs ca e used to monitor a choke point. Enemy ships cannot move rapidly enough to transit such areas without detection. The RORSATs can tip off other surveillance assets. Even as a bl detector, the satellite can provide highly accurate locating and tracking data for long-range anti-ship missiles launched from submarines, surface ships and aircraft. A RORSAT also can help assess battle damage.
Although the ocean scanning radar of the Soviet RORSATs is thought to be very effective in detecting ships for real-time targeting, it is considered upsophisticated compared with its US counterparts. These satellites are vulner le to such enemy countermeasures as jamming or false targets. Another shortcoming of radar satellites is that they use relatively long wavelengths. That means that small jects on the sea's surface cannot be resolved and identified.
Recently it was reported that the Soviets have developed a new generation of radar satellites that use an improved nuclear power source and have both low resolution (broad search area) and high resolution (synthetic aperture) radar. The new thermionic nuclear reactor, du ed Topaz, was twice successfully tested in space in 1987-1988. This type of reactor can generate large amounts of power, about 10 kilowatts, despite its small size. The Soviets claimed that one reactor tested in space so far operated for six months, and another for a year. Reportedly, the future versions of the Topaz would have a three-year lifetime. Also, the Topaz ca e improved to provide several hundred kilowatts and a five-year lifetime. Note that the nuclear reactors used on the current RORSATs can operate for only two to three months. These improvements would provide longer lives, more reli le satellite operations, and provide more accurate targeting data.
The Soviets also began to use RORSATs in conjunction with the EORSATs. While the RORSAT locates naval vessels with radar, the EORSAT can detect electronic emissions from surface ships or submarines. The effective range of Soviet ELINT satellites is estimated conservatively at 1000 kms. Any ship attempting to use electronic countermeasures to frustrate a RORSAT would only succeed in giving away its position. Two years ago the Soviets began to use a new orbit for their EORSATs which allow them to penetrate deeper into the Northern Atlantic and polar regions. Together, the RORSATs and EORSATs provide the Soviets with targeting data on US naval ships every three days instead of every four days, as with previous Soviet satellites. It has been reported that the Soviet ocean surveillance spacecraft are now linked directly with Soviet ships for immediate targeting cap ility.
Satellite Navigational System
Another element of the Soviet naval tactical command and control system that has a direct influence on the quality of targeting data is the satellite navigation system. Accurate knowledge of geographic position is of crucial importance for targeting purposes and force deployment.
Currently the Soviets have a fully deployed gl al navigation satellite system. These satellites have a density of orbits that provides almost continuous and redundant coverage for all parts of the globle. The accuracy of the Soviet satellite navigational system is reportedly compar le to that of the US Transit (currently called NNSS) satellite system of the mid 1960s because of the sence of a gl al ground stations network.
The newest Soviet satellite navigational system presently under development, the Glonass, is similar to the US NavStar. Its expected accuracies are compar le to those avail le to civilian users of the NavStar: that is, 100 metres in longitude/latitude and 150 metres in geocentric altitude. The Glonass will primarily help aircraft strike vectoring and bombing accuracies. By 1995 a full constellation of 24 Glonass, including three active spares in a geostationary orbit, will be operational. By then Soviet surface ships pr ly will be le to rendezvous, manoeuvre, and navigate with minimal communications. Moreover, all ships and most targets would have their location expressed on a common grid.
Maritime Reconnaissance Aircraft
The Soviets use their long-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft, reconnaissance versions of bombers, and ASW aircraft extensively to detect Western surface ships on the open ocean, and to provide targeting data to other platforms. For example, in the exercise Summerex-85, the 'Bear D/F' long-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft, Tu-16 'Badger D/E' reconnaissance bombers, and II-38 'May' ASW aircraft were served to be conducting reconnaissance missions in the Greenland-Iceland-UK (GIUK) Gap.
The primary Soviet platforms for long-range maritime reconnaissance are the Tu-95 'Bear D' aircraft. These aircraft are also used for mid-course guidance of ship-to-ship and submarine-launched cruise missiles. To detect surface ships, the Tu-95 'Bear Ds' are fitted with a I-band 'Big Bulge A' search radar. This radar can detect surface ships at a range up to 85 nautical miles. The 'Bear D' reportedly can transmit via video data link(VDL) the pictures on their radarscope directly to the missile platforms. This aircraft is reportedly tasked with locating large Western ship formations such as US carrier battle groups (CVBGs) for SS-N-9/12/-19 long-range anti-ship missiles.
A reconnaissance version of the Tu-134 aircraft reportedly entered operational service recently. This aircraft is equipped with sophisticated surveillance sensors including a side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) with realtime synthetic aperture radar picture capability. The aircraft also has a data collection and storage system for photo cameras and electro-optical data collection.
For reconnaissance missions in enclosed seas and at medium distances from their own shores on the open ocean, the Soviets use Tu-16 'Badger D/E' and Tu-22 'Blinder C' aircraft. The 'Blinder Cs' are reportedly fitted with six cameras and IR linescan sensor, SLAR, and ECM/ELINT sensors.
Very often the ASW aircraft are also used for targeting of major surface combatants. For example, the II-38 'May' ASW aircraft were used for OTHDT for a ship-strike group composed of a Slava class missile cruiser and two Kashin class missile destroyers in the Mediterranean in 1984.
Shipboard Helicopters.
The Soviets use their shipboard Ka-25 'Hormone B' and Ka 27 'Helix-B' helicopters for OTHDT. These helicopters are fitted with a scaled-down version of the radar fitted on II-38 'May' ASW aircraft. They are used to acquire targets for anti-ship missiles. The 'Hormone B'/Helix Bs' also pr ly provide midcourse or terminal semi-active guidance for anti-ship missiles, as well as performing other EW tasks. Both helicopters are fitted with extensive data link equipment. They can transmit targeting data via VDL to a missile platform.
Surface Combatants.
Soviet surface combatants provide targeting data to other platforms. In one served method a surface combatant remains within visual or radar range of the primary target and reports position and movement to the command post and strike platforms. This unit may be tasked to strike from a close range, poss ly providing the opening shot when hostilities commence. By using two or more platforms with passive receivers, either ESM or sonar, it is poss le to tain the target position through triangulation.
In an attack against a convoy of merchant ships, a Soviet missile ship may intentionally use its radars in active mode so as to reveal its position and trigger enemy escorts to take action. Afterwards, the Soviet ship would provide missile-firing data to the ships of the main force. The initial data on the target position and subsequent movements could also be tained by a stationary torpedo or missile craft or by some other surface craft, such as a minesweeper, which then transmits data to the command post ashore.
Seebed Sonar Surveillance System
The Soviet se ed submarine surveillance could poss ly be used for providing targeting data for their missile submarines, land-based bombers or surface ships. However, the Soviets apparently have little faith in the cap ilities of the SOSUS-like systems or shipboard sonars to provide targeting data. They assert that these systems are substantially complicated by their low accuracy in selecting targets of interest among the great multitude of jects such as commercial fishing vessels, merchant ships and by difficulties in classifying hostile from friendly ships. Therefore, the OTHDT pr lem ca e successfully resolved only by est lishing an integrated system base on the use of all means of detection, classification and localisation. This system must be global in scope.
Soviet Naval Anti-ship Missiles Requiring OTHDT
Missile Designation Launching Platform Launching Mode Effective Range(nm) OTHDT Platform
SS-N-2c mod Kashin
mod Kildi
Nahuchka-II surface 20 45 Ka-25
Matka Ka-27
SS-N-3a Echo-II surface 40 135 Tu-95
Juliett Ka-25
Kynda surface 40 135 Tu-95
Kresta-I Ka-25
SS-N-3c Echo-II surface 40 250 Tu-95
SS-N-9 Charlie-II Ka-25
Papa submerged Ka-27
Nanuchka-I/-III 35 70
Sarancha surface
SS-N-12 Echo-II Tu-95
Kiev surface 60 300 Ka-25
Slava Ka-27
SS-N-19 Oscar-I submerged 60 250 RORSAT
Kirov surface Tu-95
SS-N-22 Sovremennyy surface 30 60 Ka-25
Tarantul-III Ka-27
SS-C-1a Ground surface 40 200 Tu-95
SS-C-1b Ground surface 24 160 Helicopter
SS-C-2b Ground surface 20 50 Helicopter
SS-C-3 Ground surface 20 45 Helicopter
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RORSAT и EORSAT это как раз та самая МКРЦ "Легенда" и есть насколько я понимаю.

Если верить Марку Уэйду, то сейчас у нас только один спутник EORSAT остался :( Да и раньше судя по запускам по одной штуке висели, причем иногда RORSAT'ов вообще не было. В общем картина не фонтан. Нормальное целеуказание в лучшем случае раз в трое суток.

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