kotbayun> Прошу высказаться!!!
Боюсь, что не постигаюсь смысл вашего спора. Что касается винджаммера хватает себе изучить работы Chappelle и других. В первый половине XIX. века строились различние торговие судна – среди них класс клипери (clippers), который себя дальше делиль на так называемый класс „extreme-clippers“ и так называемый класс „medium-clippers“. „Extreme-clippers“ были судна проектирование для максимальной скорости – Cutty Sark, Teaping и др.. Их время окончилось с поступленим пары. „Medium-clippers“ в другой половине XIX. века развились в класс винджаммеров. Посмотрите что на эту тему говорит Википедиа:
A windjammer is a type of large sailing ship with an iron or steel hull, built to carry cargo in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Windjammers were the grandest of merchant sailing ships, with between three and five large masts and square sails, giving them a characteristic profile.
The name 'windjammer' is a humourous allusion to their ability to "jam" (i.e. stop or block) the wind with their sails.
In general, they displaced several thousand tonnes and were cheaper than their wooden hulled counterparts for three main reasons: iron was stronger, and thus could enable larger ship sizes and considerable economies of scale, iron hulls took up less space and allowed for more cargo to be carried, and iron hulls were cheaper to maintain than an equivalent wooden hull.
The most common windjammer rig was the four-masted barque, which was the ultimate refinement of aerodynamic study and thousands of years of sea-faring experience. The barque rig can outperform the schooner rig, can sail upwind better than full-riggers, and is easier to handle than full square rig.
The usual cargo capacity was 2,000 to 5,000 tonnes. Windjammer cargo in general was bulk, unpackaged items e.g. lumber, coal, guano or grain.
The largest windjammer ever built was the five-masted full-rigged ship Preussen, which had a displacement of 11,600 tonnes. She was also one of the fastest, regularly logging 16 knots (kn) average speed on transatlantic voyages.
Windjammers are sometimes confused with clippers, but there are significant differences between them. Whereas clippers are optimized for speed; windjammers are optimized for cargo capacity and ease of handling. Most clippers were of composite construction, full rigged and had a cargo capacity of less than 1,000 tonnes; windjammers are of steel construction, usually barques by their rig, and have far greater cargo capacities. The clippers had already begun to disappear when windjammers emerged.
Windjammers were mainly produced from the 1870s to the 1890s, when steamships began to outpace them economically, due to their ability to keep a schedule regardless of the wind. Steel hulls also replaced iron hulls at around the same time. Sailing ships could hold their own on ultra-long voyages such as Australia to Europe routes, since they were faster than steamers, did not require bunkerage for coal nor freshwater for steam, and could be manned with a surprisingly small crew.
Typically, windjammers had semi-mechanized rigging, steel profile masts and yards and steel cables as running rigging where plausible. Since the windjammer hull is hydrodynamically optimized for good hydrodynamics because of sail handling, they were (and still are) capable of sustained high cruising speeds; most four-masted barques were able to cruise at 15 kn on plausible winds, some logged 18 kn regularly and Herzogin Cecilie is known to have logged 21 kn.
Their speed made them able to compete with steamers, which usually could barely do 8 kn, on ultra-long voyages.
The crew of a windjammer was surprisingly small; they could be operated with as small a crew as 14, and a typical crew could be master, mate, boatswain (bosun), 15 seamen and 5 apprentices.
Сравнивать clipper и винджаммер это то само как сравнивать Concorde из 70 лет и настоящий Airbus 320. Они оба пассажирские самолёты, но каждый из них был проектированный на основе других требований и предположений.