YYKK>> Ну не стоит так принижатся.YYKK>> Уже есть достаточно давно БРЛС совсем с иными свойствами. YYKK>> Без привязки к конкретной, дальность обнаружения зависшего вертолета - 40 км (цель типа истребитель ~180 км), и это совсем не Барс. Dio69> А можно хоть намёком? Интересно, особенно если это "достаточно давно"
- Радужное настоящее и светлое будущее:
Zaslon / S-800 / RP-31 / N007
NATO "Flash Dance"
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Designer: Alfred Fedotchenko
Zaslon antenna shown at MAKS airshow
The N007 Zaslon was the first phased-array radar to enter service on a fighter aircraft. In 1968, Phazotron had been tasked with developing the radar for the future MiG-31. Engineers prepared two prototype units, dubbed Groza and Vikhr, both based on Sapfir-series technology. The final version was called Smerch-100, but the radar failed to meet requirements. As a result, in 1971 Phazotron was ordered to pass all the documentation to its consortium partner NIIP. The result was the Zaslon radar. The task was very difficult, since one of the main requirements was engaging cruise missiles, and the experienced Phazotron had failed to solve the problem of detecting small objects against ground clutter and tracking multiple targets simultaneously. Finally all the problems were solved, with lots of assistance from NPO Istok, who helped design the phased array, and Leninetz who were to build it, and the system finally reached service in December 1981. Zaslon is double the weight of the AWG-9, the largest US fighter radar. The NIIP team believed that the advantages a phased-array radar gave in terms of near-instantaneous scanning and multitarget engagement capability (a typical mechanically-scanned antenna can take 12-14 seconds to complete a scan) were worth the weight and cost penalties. First tests of the radar were conducted in 1973, and it was first flown on a test aircraft in 1976. On February 15, 1978, a mission in which ten targets were detected and tracked was performed for the first time. In 1981, MiG-31 aircraft carrying the Zaslon radar entered service with the Air Defense aviation, and became fully operational in 1983.
The 1.1m diameter phased array antenna weighs 300kg, the whole radar weighing in at 1000kg. Zaslon uses an Argon-15A computer (first airborne digital computer designed in USSR). Zaslon operates in 9-9.5 GHz band. It detects and engages targets down to 25m, including cruise missiles. Maximum possible search range is 300km for a large airborne target.
Range, headon, versus bomber: 180-200km search, 120-150km track
Range, tailchase, versus bomber: 90km search, 70km track
Range, headon, versus fighter : 120km search, 90km track
Zaslon can detect targets as small as 0.3 sq. m radar cross-section (RCS) to a maximum range of 65 km
Radar scan limits are ±70 azimuth, +70/-60 elevation.
Target track TWS mode, track 10 and engage 4.
Average power transmitted is 2.5kW.
MTBF is only 55 hours.
Zaslon-A security of the Zaslon system was compromised by the US spy A Tolkachov. This lead to development of an updated version, fitted to MiG-31B from 1990, retrofitted to some earlier models during rebuilding to MiG-31BS standard. It had a new data processor, giving extended capabilities, longer range and better ECM resistance.
Zaslon-M 1.4m diameter antenna, 50% to 100% better performance than Zaslon. In April 1994 used with an R-37 to hit a target at 300km distance. Search range 400km versus a 20 sq m RCS target. Tracks 24 targets at once, engages 6. Supposedly able to engage launched Pershing-2 missiles in flight with long-range R-37 active radar-guided missiles. Project ended as no new MiG-31s will be built.
Zaslon-AM all MiG-31s remaining in service are supposed to have their radars upgraded to Zaslon-AM status by Leninets, according to a design put forward by NIIP that keeps the existing antenna while replacing the old Argon-15A processors with Baget series processors.
Zhuk / N010
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Chief Designer: Yuri Guskov
Zhuk (Phazotron website)
The original Zhuk radar was designed by in the mid eighties for the MiG-29M, an update of the MiG-29 intended to rectify the shortcomings of the original MiG-29. Tested from 1987 on a special MiG-29 (9-16) testbed machine, and drawing on the NPO Istok Soyuz program, the Zhuk was intended to be the first truly multimode radar developed in the former Soviet Union, with a full range of air-air and air-ground modes enabling the host aircraft to perform a wide range of tasks. It used improved TS101 series processors and a slotted antenna. Political changes in the early nineties meant that the MiG-29M was first postponed and then cancelled. The Russian air force was not especially impressed with the original Zhuk radar, as it did not significantly increase the air-to-air detection and tracking range, preventing exploitation of the full capabilities of the extended range R-27 and R-77 missiles. It is also thought that the prototype Zhuk did not have the air-to-surface modes fully implemented.
Phazotron have since developed a whole family of radars based on the Zhuk, tailored to installation on different aircraft, and with varying levels of capability. The Kopyo is based largely on Zhuk technology, repackaged for installation into light fighters such as the MiG-21. Zhuk is a large radar for its performance class, as might be expected from the crude and bulky electronics of the former Soviet Union at the time it was designed.
Depending on range, the radar has +20, +60, or even +90 degrees of detection/track angle in azimuth and two or four bars in elevation (+60/-40 degrees maximum). 680mm diameter antenna. The radar could cooperate with the new R-77 (AA-12) missiles with active radar seekers. Two missiles could be launched against two separate targets at the same time, and two others shortly afterwards. The radar works in X band. Zhuk has 5 kW peak power and 1 kW average power.
Air to air modes:
RWS (Range-While-Search) mode
Lookup: 80-85km range
lookdown head-on: 80-85km range
lookdown tailchase: 40-50km range
TWS (Track-While-Scan) mode
tracks simultaneously 10 to 12 targets, automatically selects the most dangerous 2 to 4 of them, engaging out to 60km
STT (Single Target Tracking)
Close combat modes
Recognition of target types and quality
Detection and engagement of hovering helicopters
Air to surface modes:
Real beam mapping
DBS (Doppler Beam Sharpening) mapping
SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) ground mapping
Multiple target tracking
Map freeze and zoom
Sea surface surveillance: Range 120-150km vs a large ship.
Ground Moving Target Indication
Ground speed measurement
Employment of unguided munitions on receipt of radar information ('blind' bombing").
Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Phazotron developed a series of radars based on the Zhuk. The splitting of Phazotron and NIIP, the latter responsible for the N011 designed for the Su-27M, resulted in rival studies for Zhuk derivatives to fit on advanced Sukhoi Su-27 variants. Also, the Kopyo radar was designed, based on Zhuk technology, specifically for the purpose of upgrading older aircraft such as the MiG-21.
This version was designed to fit the Chinese F-8II interceptor, after the intended AN/APG-66 radars became unavailable due to US sanctions. It has slightly downgraded capabilities: maximum range is 90 km against a bomber and 70 km against a fighter; it can detect ten targets, track two of them, and fire a missile at a single target. The maximum field of view was reduced to +85 degrees in azimuth and in elevation to +55/-40 degrees. Weight is 240kg. It turns the somewhat obsolescent F-8II into a more useful aircraft, with multimode capabilities. This radar may be in service in China.
Zhuk-27 (Phazotron website)
Zhuk-27 represents a simple repackaging of the basic Zhuk design for the Su-27 airframe. It certainly sports a larger antenna than the standard model, perhaps with greater transmitter power too. Scan limits are slightly reduced, to ±85° in azimuth, and weight increased to 275kg. The changes increase detection range of a fighter target to 130km, tracking range to 90km.
Zhuk-PH was a more radical upgrading of the basic Zhuk design for Su-27 size aircraft. It added a new phased-array antenna, and also featured a high PRF velocity search mode for maximum detection range, without range information. Search range was predicted to be 165km and 140km against a 3 sq m RCS target in velocity search mode and range-while-search respectively. The phased-array antenna took the weight to 275-300kg, while scan limits were ±70° in azimuth and elevation. 24 targets could be tracked at once, and 6 to 8 engaged simultaneously.
Evolved into Sokol (Zhuk-MSF) radar.
Zhuk-M mounted on a MiG-29
Zhuk-M features a greater air and sea target detection range, enhanced resolution against ground in synthetic aperture radar mode, as well as an advanced "Bagiet" series computer. Compared to the N019 radar installed on the majority of MiG-29s, Phazotron achieved greater target detection range, observation angles in azimuth close to 90 degrees, greater number of targets that can be detected and attacked, air-to-surface capability, use of the R-27ER1 and RVV-AE missiles, as well as targeting of the Kh-31A and Kh-35 missiles.
Look-up range is 130km head-on, 50km tail-on versus fighter target.
Look-down range is 120km head-on, 40km tail-on versus fighter target.
TWS mode tracks 10-20 targets and engages 2-4.
Antenna: 624mm diameter, 34.5dB gain.
Peak power output: 6kW.
Average power output: 1.5kW.
Power required: 12 kVA AC, 1.5 kVA DC.
Zhemchoug (Phazotron website)
Zhemchoug was developed by Phazotron in cooperation with China for J-10 and FC-1 projects, its a version of the Zhuk-M with Chinese IFF and other changes. Substantially lighter than Zhuk at just 180kg, with equal or better capabilities. Its planar array antenna helps keep down costs and weight compared to phased array designs. It detects simultaneously 20 targets, selects the most dangerous 4 of them, tracks and attacks them. Proposed for MiG-29 upgrades.
Detection range: 80 km, lock-on range 60 km.
RP-35 is a Zhuk-M or Zhemchoug with a 680mm phased-array antenna, sized for the MiG-35 project. Current status uncertain.
Zhuk-MS is an Su-27 sized version of Zhuk-M. Peak power is increased to 6 kW and average power to 1.5 kW. The antenna diameter is enlarged to 960 mm. The maximum range is increased to 140 km (50 km in tailchase). The radar can detect up to 20 targets simultaneously and can track and engage up to four targets with R-77 missiles. It introduced synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) modes (3 m resolution) and terrain-following modes in the air-to-ground role.
Zhuk-MS entered production for China. 20 prototype sets are thought to be under test on Chinese Su-30MKK, though the continued use of N001VE in later batches implies that problems were encountered.
Zhuk-MSF / Sokol
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Zhuk-MSF non-equidistant phased antenna
Zhuk-MSF is the most up to date radar design by Phazotron. Sokol uses a non-equidistant rather than the traditional linear radar field distribution, which, Phazotron says, allows a fivefold radar cost reduction over a traditionally designed phased array radar. The production radar will have a 980mm antenna diameter (37dB gain) and weigh 275kg. The radar tracks 24-30 targets, engages the most dangerous 6 to 8 of them. Its electronic beam steering will give ±70 deg spatial coverage in both axes. Power output is 8kW peak, 2 - 3kW average. It is designed for high reliability, and is frequency agile with LPI and anti ECM features. Phazotron says it will be capable of interleaving between air-to-air and air-to-ground modes.
Velocity search: 245km head-on vs fighter target. (This figure is no longer quoted. The mode may have been removed)
Range-while-search, lookup mode: 180-190km head-on / 80km tail-on vs fighter target.
Range-while-search, lookdown mode : 170km head-on / 60km tail-on vs fighter target.
Track-while-scan mode: 150km head-on vs fighter target.
Against a large target such as a bomber or AWACS aircraft detection range comfortably exceeds 300km